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運動監測軟件不能幫你減肥

本文屬閱讀資料

Activity Trackers May Undermine Weight Loss Efforts

運動監測軟件不能幫你減肥


Wearable activity monitors can count your steps and track your movements, but they don’t, apparently, help you lose weight. In fact, you might lose more weight without them.

可穿戴式活動監測設備能計算你的步數,并追蹤你的運動,但它們對減肥似乎沒有幫助。實際上,不用它們的話,你的減肥效果可能更好。

The fascinating finding comes from a study published today in JAMA that found dieting adults who wore activity monitors for 18 months lost significantly fewer pounds over that time than those who did not.

這項非常有趣的發現來自《美國醫學會雜志》(The Journal of the American Medical Association)今天發表的一項研究。該研究發現,在18個月的時間里,戴活動監測設備的成人減肥者體重下降的磅數,明顯少于不戴活動監測設備的人。

The results suggest that activity monitors may not change our behavior in the way we expected, and raise interesting questions about the tangled relationships between exercise, eating, our willpower and our waistlines.

相關結果表明,活動監測設備或許并不會以我們預計的方式改變我們的行為。它們也引出了有關鍛煉、飲食、意志力和腰圍之間錯綜復雜的關系的問題,頗為有趣。

There have been tantalizing hints in a few studies recently that new technologies such as wearable activity monitors, which tell us how much we are moving and how many calories we have burned during the day, might help some people to drop pounds.

在最近的一些研究中,出現了一些激動人心的跡象。這些跡象表明,像能夠告訴我們一天中做了多少運動,燃燒了多少卡路里的可穿戴式活動監測設備這樣的新技術,或許有助于一些人減肥。

Those studies, however, had typically been small scale and short term, so it was still unclear how much activity monitors might aid in weight loss.

然而,這些研究往往規模小,周期短,因此活動監測設備對減肥的幫助作用可能有多大仍不得而知。

So for the new study, University of Pittsburgh scientists from the Physical Activity and Weight Management Research Center and their colleagues gathered almost 500 young, overweight men and women who wanted to lose weight. The recruits ranged in age from 18 to 35 since, presumably, these younger volunteers would be familiar with and competent using technologies such as activity trackers and any learning curve would be slight.

就前文提到的新研究而言,匹茲堡大學(University of Pittsburgh)來自身體活動與體重管理研究中心(Physical Activity and Weight Management Research Center)的科學家和他們的同事招募到了近500名想減肥的超重青年男女。他們的年齡在18到35歲之間,因為這些較年輕的志愿者大概會對活動追蹤設備這類技術比較熟悉,能夠正確使用它們,需要學習的話也會較為容易。

The volunteers were weighed and their general health and fitness assessed.

志愿者們稱了體重,并接受了總體健康狀況評估。

Then, for the first six months of the study, the volunteers followed a straightforward, low-calorie diet designed to provide steady weight loss and were urged to start moving more, aiming for at least 100 minutes of moderate activity each week. They kept daily food and exercise diaries and attended weekly counseling sessions.

然后,在研究的頭六個月里,志愿者們遵循一種簡單的低熱量飲食計劃。該計劃的設計意圖是實現穩定的體重下降。研究人員督促他們開始增加運動量,目標是每周至少進行100分鐘的低強度活動。他們要寫飲食和鍛煉日記,還要參加每周一次的咨詢輔導活動。

By the end of six months, everyone had lost weight. And then the actual experiment began.

六個月結束時,所有人的體重都下降了。然后,真正的實驗開始了。

The scientists now divided their volunteers in half. One group was told to start logging their daily exercise sessions onto a study website.

科學家們把志愿者平分成兩組。一組被要求把每天的鍛煉時間記錄在一個研究網站上。

The others were given a monitor designed to be worn on the upper arm that would track their physical activity and provide feedback about whether they were achieving goals for step counts, calorie expenditure and so on.

其他人則拿到了監測儀,它會被使用者戴在上臂上,以追蹤用戶的身體活動,并就用戶是否即將完成步數和熱量消耗等方面的目標提供反饋。

“We were pretty confident” that the volunteers in the group using the activity monitors would exercise more, monitor their calorie intake better, and lose more weight than the people in the self-monitoring group, says John Jakicic, a distinguished professor in the department of health and physical activity at the University of Pittsburgh and the study’s lead author.

匹茨堡大學健康與身體活動系的著名教授、這項研究的第一作者約翰·亞基奇科(John Jakicic)說,“我們本來非常相信”使用活動監測儀那個小組的志愿者會加大運動量,更好地監測熱量攝入,因而減肥效果也會比自我監控小組的人好。

For 18 months, the volunteers logged into the study website or wore the monitor on most days. Counselors occasionally checked with everyone by phone and sent encouraging text messages.

在18個月里,志愿者們大部分時候或是登陸前述研究網站,或是戴著監測儀。咨詢顧問偶爾會通過電話進行檢查,并發送鼓勵短信。

After 18 months — and two years after the beginning of the study — all of the volunteers returned to the lab to repeat their measurements from the start.

在18個月,也就是研究開始兩年后,所有志愿者都回到實驗室,重新讀出他們一開始的體重。

Most were thinner now than at the start of the study (although many had regained some of the weight that they had lost during the first six months).

此時大部分人都比研究開始的時候瘦了(不過不少人在最初六個月體重下降后,又出現了一定程度的反彈)。

Those who had not worn activity monitors were, on average, about 13 pounds lighter now than two years ago.

不戴活動監測儀的人平均比兩年前輕了大約13磅。

Those who had worn the monitors, however, weighed only about 8 pounds less than at the start.

而戴活動監測儀的人只比一開始瘦了大約8磅。

“We were definitely surprised,” Dr. Jakicic says.

“我們確實很驚訝,”亞基奇科說。

The reasons for the difference in weight loss are not immediately clear, he says.

他表示,減肥效果出現這種差異的原因目前還不清楚。

Theoretically, those using the monitors might have been so inspired to exercise that they moved a lot, developed large appetites, and overate, blunting any weight loss from the workouts, he says.

他說,從理論上說,使用監測儀的那些人可能大受鼓舞,以至大量運動,胃口變大,吃得太多,削弱了鍛煉產生的減肥效果。

But in fact, the data from the monitors shows that those wearing the technology generally exercised less than those in the other group.

但事實上,來自監測儀的數據顯示,使用這種技術的人總體上比另一組的人鍛煉得少。

So perhaps the monitors resulted in less motivation to move, Dr. Jakicic says. It is possible, he says, that when those wearing the trackers realized they would not reach their daily exercise goal, they simply gave up, leading to relatively low caloric expenditure on those days, and less weight loss overall than among those not using the technology.

亞基奇科說,所以也許監測儀導致的結果,是鍛煉的積極性降低。他說,可能當那些佩戴追蹤設備的人意識到他們達不到每天的運動目標時就放棄了,導致那些日子里的熱量消耗相對較低,總體上的減肥效果不及不使用該技術的人。

The people using the monitors may also have assumed that, in some roundabout way, the technology removed responsibility from them for monitoring their energy intake, Dr. Jakicic says. “People may have focused on the technology and forgotten to focus on their behaviors” and ate too much, he says.

亞基奇科說,使用監測設備的人也可能認為,該技術以某種模糊的方式免去了他們自己監測能量攝入的責任。他說,“人們可能把注意力放到了這種技術上,忘記關注自己的行為”,結果吃得太多。

Dr. Jakicic and his colleagues hope to conduct follow-up studies that will directly examine how activity monitors affect exercise motivation and subsequent weight loss.

亞基奇科和同事希望進行后續研究,直接調查活動監測設備是如何影響鍛煉積極性及后來的減肥效果的。

“What these results say to me is that we still have a great deal to learn” about how monitoring technologies affect real-life actions, Dr. Jakicic says. People’s responses to a monitor strapped to their arm may not always be rational and could result in behaviors that are the opposite of those that the monitor would be expected to encourage.

亞基奇科說,“在我看來,這些結果表明”,關于監測技術如何影響現實行動,“我們還有很多需要學習”。人們對綁在胳膊上的監測設備的反應可能并不總是理性的,因而可能會造成與我們希望監測設備所能鼓勵的行為相反的結果。

In other words, we humans are strange and often our own worst enemies, especially when it comes to trying to increase our exercise or reduce our weight.

換言之,我們人類很奇怪,經常是自己最大的敵人,尤其是在努力增加鍛煉或減輕體重方面。


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